No Tsonga traditional leader was invited in that ceremony and two significant things happened: First, Buyisonto formally announced the death of his father, Nghunghunyani, in exiled prison of Azores. Apart from the Nkuna, there are other Tsonga groups that came to Tzaneen in the 1830s such as the Rikhotso of N’wamungololo, Mavunda or Nhlave of Nyavana and the Valoyi of N’wamitwa, who were also fleeing from Soshangane’s rule. Hosi Nxumalo also alleged that one of the 11 official languages recognized by the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa (Act 108 of 1996) is Shangaan / Tsonga. In a statement to the white authorities dated 15th January 1904 and attached as Annexure?, these are some of the statements Gija said: “….I have come to Johannesburg to see my fellow tribesmen, with the object of collecting money for purpose of buying food.”, “I know Mpisana who is in charge of Gungunyana’s people in the Lydenburg District. In Mozambican Tsonga is divided into three branches which are treated as almost separate languages : (a) Xirhonga is found predominatly in the South Eastern region, South of the Nkomati river. Whether you say Mutsonga or Muchangana, you are therefore referring to the descendents of Soshangana by birth, acculturation or conquest. We have already highlighted most of the inconsistencies, inaccuracies, contradictions and fallacies raised by Hosi Nxumalo in his submission to the Commission. On his arrival in bushbuckridge, he found his younger brother, Thulamahaxi, reigning as prince regent. For us, it is like suggesting that because the Shona were once defeated by Mzilikazi then they should be called Ndebeles. The larger number of the refugees went into the Lydenburg District, with gungunyana’s son, Thulilamahashi, and the chief wife, Sonile, and other wives of Gungunyana. We can cite more examples in other societies such as the Ndebele and the Pedi to substantiate on this fact. While we did not attend to it in great detail in the original submission, Hosi Nxumalo’s submission brought about the need for us to highlight more salient points which will assist the commission in carrying its work: There is a view that since Soshangane defeated many Tsonga groups, all of us should therefore be called Shangaans. The Tsonga communities like all the other southern African communities had sub-groups that exists to this day. While we think that there is a relationship between the restoration of the pride and value of traditional leadership and the vision of the African Renaissance, we should stay clear of tendencies which have potential to further divide Africans. A lot has been questioned about the culture – mainly because this is was the first in the history of South African television and the history Vatsonga.. Labels: Izithakazelo. Unity can only be engendered by strong credible leadership (which) Eric Nxumalo aims at promoting once on the throne. If the Ndwandwe family is viewed as unsuitable claimants to the throne of the Machangana kingship, which family then is suitable? When Hoyi of the Vaxika was released from captivity by Nghunghunyani in 1890, he was welcomed by three of his subject chiefs, Didimba, Maphehlukhuni and Mjokane and an army of the Vaxika. Together they numbered about 1.5 million people in South Africa in the mid-1990s, with some 4.5 million individuals in southern Mozambique and Zimbabwe. From Musapa, where Mzila was staying, to Groot Speloken, Mzila left behind Tsonga chiefs in the N’wanati and Valoyi areas in the Lowveld, and chose Albasini instead. 3664/06 dated 17-08-1906 states: “That he (Mpisane) was in the position of being a refugee in this colony… and that kindness was extended to him by the late government in that Abel Erasmus, the late Native Commissioner, Lydenburg, ….allowed (to) remain in that district and take up occupation.”. No other king ruled over the territory claimed in its entirety. Historically, surnames evolved as a way to sort people into groups - by occupation, place of origin, clan affiliation, patronage, parentage, adoption, and even physical characteristics (like red hair). This means that today each government on the continent has a responsibility to redress events that took place within its borders. This recognition is a further justification for this claim. This point was legalized by Gazankulu Homeland Act of 1973. Historically, Xitsonga is a language spoken by a very small and insignificant language group in Mozambique. This is a great system that allows anyone like you and me to create a private site for their family, build their family tree and share family photos. 9). Junod 1905: (472 – 473) states that Mahazule and N’wamatibyana had taken refugee in Gaza in July /August 1895. The existence of strong Tsonga communities in South East Africa as part of a decentralized society three hundred years before Soshangane was even born is proof enough that he never founded them? They were running away from Soshangane and therefore did not want to be part of his kingdom. Masina, Mthombeni! They would for example not hesitate to knock down a wall if at all they feel using the door might delay them. Hosi Nxumalo also alleges that the population register recognizes Machangana / Vatsonga, as part of the South African population. Further entertainment of this statement will perpetuate the confusion that was created by colonial writers, which we are currently working hard to correct. Junod H A (1905:15) states: “Another name, which is much used among white people to designate the Thongas (Tsongas) is the word Shangaan. Zikhona izikibha nama-jacket/hoodies akwa Mathebula Whatsapp / call: 061 868 5163. The collapse of this kingdom was reaffirmed by the appointment of Mankulumani, Zwide’s grandson, as the traditional prime minister of Zulu king Dinizulu. We also do not support the distortion of Tsonga history in the name of what Hosi Nxumalo refers to as nation-building. This branch was historically subdivided into Hlengwe, N’walungu, Dzonga and Bila. Masina, Mthombeni. We know for sure that even Gija himself did not regard the nearby Tsonga communities as the subjects of Gaza. We also refer the Commission to the same book as it confirms that Xiluvana and the Nkuna fled from Soshangane after the defeat and settled in Tzaneen. It is a fact that Nghunghunyani’s part in the Rhonga war was precipitated by his acceptance of Zihlahla and Mahazule as refugees in his country and therefore asylum seekers. Here are some phrases that I think could really help in your everyday language. Vatukulu va Sochangana, Muzila na Nghunyanyana, va hundzukile Vatsonga, va vulavula Xitsonga. (c) Xitsonga proper-found predominantly in the central and North Eastern reaches of the Southern parts of the country, mainly the Gaza province. Our submission is that the Shangaan community which has been linguistically and culturally assimilated should, as is the case right now, form a component of the Tsonga and not the other way round. In response to our question on 27th March 2006, Hosi Nxumalo’s representatives produced a book by Ntsan’wisi and Shiluvana, entitled Muhlaba, which talks about the defeat of Xiluvana of the Nkuna by Soshangane. From Louis Tritchardt, he was escorted by Gija and the Maxobye family to Mpisana in Bushbuckridge. And we also submit that the Nkuna, Valoyi, Rikhotso and Mavunda gave Modjadji and Maake this assistance without Gaza’s consent and the Gaza kings did nothing about that. Nyabana had two wives: 1st wife’s son Shihoko [Xihoko] and 2nd wife’s sons Ngobe (Ngove) and Dumeri [Dzumeri]. We do not believe for once that the Tsonga should have one King simply because there are ethnic groups that have theirs. Earlier on we indicated that the Valoyi and others are now called Tsonga’s because they have been assimilated over a long period of time. A very small number of Tsonga people are also found in Zimbabwe and Northern Swaziland.The Tsonga people of South Africa share some history with the Tsonga people of … How would this be possible if the two were Gaza subjects? Our document demonstrates throughout that this is a mistake because this language is not Nguni and is not even nearer to be a Nguni dialect. Hosi Nxumalo confuses the Tonga language of Inhambane (Nyembane) with Tsonga and therefore this statement must be ignored by the Commission. Tell friends: Mayisela Clan Name Praise. Nghunghunyani attacked the current Hoyi section of the Ngomana in 1885 and captured the heir to the Ngomane throne, Hoyi, forcing the reigning leader, Ntiyi, to flee to a place called Mpakeni. This area incorporated among others, White River. TSONGA HISTORY PERSPECTIVE BY MANDLA MATHEBULA, ROBERT NKUNA, HLENGANI MABASA AND MUKHACANI MALULEKE ... [Jere] clan , a former Ndwandwe subsidiary chief. The book was written by Joao Albasini III, a grandson to Joao Albasini. We submit that the issue that we are presenting to the Commission has profound legal implications as the ground for the Nxumalo claim is based on events that took place in Mozambique. Even the suggestion that the fleeing of the two Rhonga leaders to Gaza in 1894 was a sign of their submission to Nghunghunyani is incorrect. Make the three chiefs arrange some regiments to escort him and the Royal family to safety, Make the three chiefs contribute land for the settlement of the Ndwandwe Royal family and the people who accompanied them, Assemble the army from all the Tsonga chiefs in the Transvaal to go and assist Magigwani, who was still fighting the Portuguese. Mawewe was forced to seek help from Modjadji. This part of Hosi Nxumalo’s submission is very contradictory to itself. …But this term was never accepted by the Ba-Ronga (Varonga), who consider it as an insult. The recent airing of the first Xitsonga telenovela ‘Giyani – Land Of Blood’ on SABC 2 has sparked a crucial debate around the Xitsonga language including its dialects. The Shangaan/Vatsonga chiefs and tribes are not properly coordinated and do not have a common focus and approach in the preservation of their culture and heritage. When Mgubho, the chief of the Xika community was attacked by the Ndwandwe in the 1820s, he fled to Noziyingili of the Tembe in the east, but never became his subject. Tsonga woman sharing traditional tea Clan exogamy is practiced. (b) Xitshwa-found predominatly south of the Great Save river more especially in the Inhambane (Nyembane) province. Hosi Nxumalo is aware of the difference between Tsonga and Shangaan, but wants to use the confusion created by colonialism and apartheid to boost his claim. Who else has submitted a claim in this regard? As I was once told, Batlokoa unlike any other clan reflect so much the animal they venerate. We need a lot of time on this. 2. We want to first submit that Muzila fled from Gaza to Xipilongo and settled there knowing pretty well that the area was not part of Gaza. Accepting this proposition will create a big problem in South Africa as it would mean the Nxumalo’s themselves, the Hlubi, and others who were defeated by Shaka should be called Zulus. (updated by nicholas best known as azael) contact : 0762589267/0722146967 Whereas the outcome of the Renaissance will depend on our dexterity to discern the past and present fabrications, restoring the memory of Africa to its place must go beyond the reach of contemporary exigencies. If they are geared for an attack there is no stopping them! We also want to dispel the notion that Soshangane interacted with Tsonga communities for a first time when he fled from Shaka. On many occassions he used to ask Moshoeshoe who he is … None of communities outside the Amashangana Tribal Authority participated in that ritual. Our History BBM Logo Description: pin. (De Waal 1953:20) states: “Muzila wat reeds in 1859 deur Mawewe verslaan is en uit Gazaland gevlug het, het hom sedertdien by Albasini in die Transvaal gevestig”. A few clan names of amaXhosa and related ethnic groups include: 1. Nyabana [Nyavana] was one of Modjadji’s followers in Modjaji’s location. We also stated that in passing through this area, Gija and his people passed through the Chavalalas, Nhlaves, Valoyis, Cawukes, the Van’wanati and other communities that they currently claim as their subjects and proceeded to the “Magwamba” community, but settled on land belonging to the Venda. Izithakazelo zakwa Qumbisa, Qumbisa Clan Praises Qumbisa, Jiyeza ! They were assisted with settlement land by the Bakgaga, Queen Makaepea of the Banareng and Queen Modjadji of the Lobedu. bafokeng clan praises. The bottom line is that Tsonga communities would prefer to have cultural and linguistic autonomy which would allow us to transform them without being commanded by somebody like Hosi Nxumalo who has very little, if any, regard for our history and heritage. It is clear that the Nkuna later established their own Kingdom in Tzaneen. If the Ngomana were part of Gaza, and tribute payment meant subordination, by going to the Swazi capital to pay tribute, Dlavu would have betrayed not only his brother, but also the Gaza king for paying tribute to another king. At best, this is the essence of decolonization. However, individual communities, including the Nxumalo, should have a right to make claims that specifically affect them and not to generalize on behalf of all the Tsonga people. Ku thebula means ‘ku loya’ in Nguni, the name was given to them by Nguni’s who translated “Valoyi” to Mathebula (Matsewula is a Swati version of Mathebula). … Just as in English one would say, 'your majesty or his royal majesty or your royal majesty' to their king, in Zulu and other nguni words you use the praise word ndabezitha.The word is a contraction of indaba yezitha literally meaning 'matter of the enemies' Mkhalo onsundu Ozinywo more. Hosi Nxumalo himself agrees with all historians that Muzila was assisted by Albasini and the Portuguese in defeating and dislodging Mawewe. Batlokoa venerate the wild cat. The Tsonga people (Tsonga: Vatsonga) are a Bantu ethnic group native mainly to Southern Mozambique and South Africa (Limpopo and Mpumalanga).They speak Xitsonga, a Southern Bantu language. We are therefore submitting that it is not true that our language is Shangaan/Tsonga and Hosi Nxumalo’s submission to this effect is incorrect. In 1647 Xihlomulo was the ruler of the Valoyi clan until 1785 when he was succeeded by his son Mbhekwana. Ndabezitha is the one of the praise and respect words used when the Zulus and other Ngunis want to acknowledge loyalty to a Nguni royalty. These communities were independent from each other and also independent from the Gaza. Newer Post Older Post Home. praise clipart praise dance clipart praise dance pictures clip art praise the lord clipart praise god clipart. As there was never a Nxumalo King of the Tsonga people in South Africa, there is no need for this issue to be entertained for that matter. This document is part of a series in the Digital Tsonga Productions research project. There is no other traditional leader in South Africa, who can submit a case stronger than this one with a view to claim the throne of the kingdom of the people referred to as Machangana. These were the Mpfumo, Nondwana, Mazwaya (polluted by Portuguese to Mabyaya), and the Maphutha or Tembe. The Nxumalos did, however, have a kingdom among the Nguni in the northern Natal, which disintegrated with the defeat of Zwide to whom Soshangane was subject and commander of the army. There could be other forums that Vatsonga could have to promote cultural and linguistic unity, rather than insist on political unity at all cost. The truth, therefore, is that Mahazule and N’wamatibyana took refuge in Nghungunyani’s country when they were attacked by the Portuguese as would happen to any leader who is in trouble but has a friend somewhere. We therefore submit that Nghunghunyani would not have protected Dlavu if the Ngomana, including Dlavu himself, were his subjects and Dlavu had clashed with his brother for betraying him to the king rival to Nghunghunyani. However, they had a dilemma that the name Shangaan was popularized in South African mines by white employers as representing people who were ethnologically Tsonga. Like it is in every culture, especially in Africa naming a child according to the clan expectations is a great source of identity. It must be noted that Xitshwa and Xironga are not significantly represented in South Africa to constitute separate languages. 4), 2. In fact, we believe would have attacked Dlavu, instead. In the heat of divide and rule, which culminated in the policy of apartheid, the descendents of Soshangana’s subjects confirmed their loyalty to their kingdom by naming their Territorial Authority the Amashangana Territorial Authority. Sixly, it claims there were those who believed he was an emperor. A lame attempt to portray Machangana as a different species from the group referred (to) as Vatsonga. 4. It is an analysis of the historical movements and cultural significance of the Vatsonga people of Southern Africa. Ntsan’wisi and Shiluvane, also state that Muzila was part of Albasini and the Schoemansdal army that attacked Xiluvana and the Nkuna army in 1859. Joao Albasini was “pushed by the spirit of exploitation” and his (Albasini’s) motives were clear and included, among others, destabilizing of life and kingdoms. 727/1906 Nr. 1. Vatsonga have a right if they so wish to organize their society in line with the boundaries of a decentralized society which existed prior to Soshangane’s adventures? SOSHANGANE DID NOT CONQUER ALL THE TSONGA COMMUNTIES. 3. Hosi Nxumalo’s submission brought about a lot of confusion on three concepts: Tribute payment – used at the time as a symbol of friendship, diplomatic relations, alliance or subjugation We argue that tribute-paying was not always an acknowledgement of subordination but was one of the strategies used by some societies to create friendship with powerful societies to avoid wars with them, thereby retaining their political, cultural and linguistic autonomy. That the Nkuna community came to Tzaneen in about 1836 (some say 1834, but there is consensus that it was not later than 1839). It is also witnessed but the fact that some Tsonga communities (e.g. First, it criticizes Albasini as an exploitative colonialist. This clan enjoyed their stay in Mozambique until the Zulu impis from the South (Kwazulu-Natal) came up and attacked them. We also want to submit that the Gaza kings knew about Modjadji and other Sotho leaders, apart from Sekhukhune and that they gave them the necessary recognition. Instead, he contacted Abel Erasmus, the Native Commission for the Eastern Transvaal with the aim of acquiring land from him. Mhinga Dynasty 2010, ‟About Us‟, viewed 28 February 2015, Web Link Mthethwa, AM 1995, The History of abakwaMthethwa, research project, … Due to the destabilizing effect of the 1895 colonial war against the Portuguese ….. the Shangaans ….. succumbed to the effect of divide and rule (and) the Boers refused to recognize them as one kingdom. Apart from these unanswered questions, we wish Hosi Nxumalo could explain the following: Why was he and his people expelled from Davhana’s country, forcing them to settle at Xaswita, the land belonging to the Van’wanati chief called Xikundu? 7. We submit Annexure?, which is an extract from the Constitution of the Republic of South African, which recognizes our language as Tsonga and not Shangaan/Tsonga. We submit Annexure? (Where he prepared for war). Queen Modjadji of the Lobedu played a pivotal role in giving land to these communities in exchange of their military strength, before they acquired their own land in the nearby areas. We have evidence that shows that he actually recognized Mpisana and his people as the only group linked to his. The Traditional Leadership and Governance Act does not force any traditional community to have a king at all cost. Masina! So, we submit that Modjadji’s kingdom was in existence during Soshangane and was known to Gaza. A very small number of Tsonga people are also found in Zimbabwe and Northern Swaziland.The Tsonga people of South Africa share some history with the Tsonga people of … They briefly formed an alliance. Aangesien die gebied tussen die Lebombo en Drakensberge bykans totaal onbewoon was en die kaptein van die Pulanastam (Oos-Sotho) in die omgewing van Mabulaneni (Mapulaneng) (huidige Bosbokranddistrik) geen beswaar teen sodanige vestiging langs sy gebied gehad het nie, keer die gesante terug waar hul Mpisane, tesame met al die oorblywende vroue en kinders van Nghunghunyani en ‘n gevolg van ‘n paar honderd Changana, reeds in aantog vind.”, Stevenson-Hamilton (1949:206) further states: “Tydens 1898 vertrek Mpisane met ‘n geskenk (informante beweer diamante en olifanttande) na Abel Erasmus, waar hul versoek om bewoning van die Laeveld, toegestaan word.”, Unisa continues to state: “In hierdie gebied het die Changana nou rustig … met die Swazistamme aan hul suide, Oos-Sothostamme (Pai, Pulana en Kutswe) ten weste en Hlanganu, noord sowel as oos van hulle gewoon.”, A Report of the Natives Land Commission, 1916, Vol.II, pp.389 states: “About 400 families of Tshangaans came into the (Sabie) district in 1906 from the Portuguese side.